# A Framework for Verifiable Blind Quantum Computation

## Abstract

With the recent availability of cloud quantum computing services, the question of the verifiability of quantum computations delegated by a weak quantum client to a powerful quantum server is becoming of practical interest. Over the last two decades, Verifiable Blind Quantum Computing (VBQC) has emerged as one of the key approaches to address this challenge. While many protocols have been proposed in recent years, each optimising one aspect of such schemes, a systematic study of required building blocks to achieve collectively the desired properties has been missing. We present a framework that encompasses all known VBQC protocols and present sufficient conditions to obtain composable security and noise robustness properties. We do this by providing a unified security proof within the Abstract Cryptography formalism that can be used for existing protocols as well as new ones that could be derived using the framework. While we choose Measurement-Based Quantum Computing (MBQC) as the working model for the presentation of our results, one could expand the domain of applicability of our framework via direct known translation between the circuit model and MBQC. On a theoretical note, we uncover fundamental relations between verification and error detection and correction, a folklore belief in the field that has never been mathematically proven: (i) verification can be reduced to the task of error detection, and (ii) encoding of the target computation into an error-correcting code is necessary for exponential soundness. These simple yet fundamental facts set the design principles for further development towards practical VBQC protocols. Indeed, as a direct application we demonstrate how the framework can systematize the search for new verification techniques. We find completely new schemes that allow more efficient robust verification of BQP computations than current state of the art.

**Authors:** Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi,Dominik Leichtle,Luka Music,Harold Ollivier

**Date:** 2022-06-01

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2206.00631v1

# Differential Privacy Amplification in Quantum and Quantum-inspired

Algorithms

## Abstract

Differential privacy provides a theoretical framework for processing a dataset about $n$ users, in a way that the output reveals a minimal information about any single user. Such notion of privacy is usually ensured by noise-adding mechanisms and amplified by several processes, including subsampling, shuffling, iteration, mixing and diffusion. In this work, we provide privacy amplification bounds for quantum and quantum-inspired algorithms. In particular, we show for the first time, that algorithms running on quantum encoding of a classical dataset or the outcomes of quantum-inspired classical sampling, amplify differential privacy. Moreover, we prove that a quantum version of differential privacy is amplified by the composition of quantum channels, provided that they satisfy some mixing conditions.

**Authors:** Armando Angrisani,Mina Doosti,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2022-03-07

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2203.03604v1

# Quantum Local Differential Privacy and Quantum Statistical Query Model

## Abstract

The problem of private learning has been extensively studied in classical computer science. Notably, a striking equivalence between local differentially private learning and statistical query learning has been shown. In addition, the statistical query model has been recently extended to quantum computation. In this work, we give a formal definition of quantum local differential privacy and we extend the aforementioned result to quantum computation.

**Authors:** Armando Angrisani,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2022-03-07

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2203.03591v1

# Probably approximately correct quantum source coding

## Abstract

Information-theoretic lower bounds are often encountered in several branches of computer science, including learning theory and cryptography. In the quantum setting, Holevo’s and Nayak’s bounds give an estimate of the amount of classical information that can be stored in a quantum state. Previous works have shown how to combine information-theoretic tools with a counting argument to lower bound the sample complexity of distribution-free quantum probably approximately correct (PAC) learning. In our work, we establish the notion of Probably Approximately Correct Source Coding and we show two novel applications in quantum learning theory and delegated quantum computation with a purely classical client. In particular, we provide a lower bound of the sample complexity of a quantum learner for arbitrary functions under the Zipf distribution, and we improve the security guarantees of a classically-driven delegation protocol for measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC).

**Authors:** Armando Angrisani,Brian Coyle,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2021-12-13

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2112.06841v1

# Graph neural network initialisation of quantum approximate optimisation

## Abstract

Approximate combinatorial optimisation has emerged as one of the most promising application areas for quantum computers, particularly those in the near term. In this work, we focus on the quantum approximate optimisation algorithm (QAOA) for solving the Max-Cut problem. Specifically, we address two problems in the QAOA, how to select initial parameters, and how to subsequently train the parameters to find an optimal solution. For the former, we propose graph neural networks (GNNs) as an initialisation routine for the QAOA parameters, adding to the literature on warm-starting techniques. We show the GNN approach generalises across not only graph instances, but also to increasing graph sizes, a feature not available to other warm-starting techniques. For training the QAOA, we test several optimisers for the MaxCut problem. These include quantum aware/agnostic optimisers proposed in literature and we also incorporate machine learning techniques such as reinforcement and meta-learning. With the incorporation of these initialisation and optimisation toolkits, we demonstrate how the QAOA can be trained as an end-to-end differentiable pipeline.

**Authors:** Nishant Jain,Brian Coyle,Elham Kashefi,Niraj Kumar

**Date:** 2021-11-04

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2111.03016v1

# Benchmarking of Quantum Protocols

## Abstract

Quantum network protocols offer new functionalities such as enhanced security to communication and computational systems. Despite the rapid progress in quantum hardware, it has not yet reached a level of maturity that enables execution of many quantum protocols in practical settings. To develop quantum protocols in real world, it is necessary to examine their performance considering the imperfections in their practical implementation using simulation platforms. In this paper, we consider several quantum protocols that enable promising functionalities and services in near-future quantum networks. The protocols are chosen from both areas of quantum communication and quantum computation as follows: quantum money, W-state based anonymous transmission, verifiable blind quantum computation, and quantum digital signature. We use NetSquid simulation platform to evaluate the effect of various sources of noise on the performance of these protocols, considering different figures of merit. We find that to enable quantum money protocol, the decoherence time constant of the quantum memory must be at least three times the storage time of qubits. Furthermore, our simulation results for the w-state based anonymous transmission protocol show that to achieve an average fidelity above 0.8 in this protocol, the storage time of sender’s and receiver’s particles in the quantum memory must be less than half of the decoherence time constant of the quantum memory. We have also investigated the effect of gate imperfections on the performance of verifiable blind quantum computation. We find that with our chosen parameters, if the depolarizing probability of quantum gates is equal to or greater than 0.05, the security of the protocol cannot be guaranteed. Lastly, our simulation results for quantum digital signature protocol show that channel loss has a significant effect on the probability of repudiation.

**Authors:** Chin-Te Liao,Sima Bahrani,Francisco Ferreira da Silva,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2021-11-03

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2111.02527v2

# On the Connection Between Quantum Pseudorandomness and Quantum Hardware

Assumptions

## Abstract

This paper, for the first time, addresses the questions related to the connections between the quantum pseudorandomness and quantum hardware assumptions, specifically quantum physical unclonable functions (qPUFs). Our results show that the efficient pseudorandom quantum states (PRS) are sufficient to construct the challenge set for the universally unforgeable qPUF, improving the previous existing constructions that are based on the Haar-random states. We also show that both the qPUFs and the quantum pseudorandom unitaries (PRUs) can be constructed from each other, providing new ways to obtain PRS from the hardware assumptions. Moreover, we provide a sufficient condition (in terms of the diamond norm) that a set of unitaries should have to be a PRU in order to construct a universally unforgeable qPUF, giving yet another novel insight into the properties of the PRUs. Later, as an application of our results, we show that the efficiency of an existing qPUF-based client-server identification protocol can be improved without losing the security requirements of the protocol.

**Authors:** Mina Doosti,Niraj Kumar,Elham Kashefi,Kaushik Chakraborty

**Date:** 2021-10-22

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2110.11724v2

# Quantum Lock: A Provable Quantum Communication Advantage

## Abstract

Physical unclonable functions(PUFs) provide a unique fingerprint to a physical entity by exploiting the inherent physical randomness. Gao et al. discussed the vulnerability of most current-day PUFs to sophisticated machine learning-based attacks. We address this problem by integrating classical PUFs and existing quantum communication technology. Specifically, this paper proposes a generic design of provably secure PUFs, called hybrid locked PUFs(HLPUFs), providing a practical solution for securing classical PUFs. An HLPUF uses a classical PUF(CPUF), and encodes the output into non-orthogonal quantum states to hide the outcomes of the underlying CPUF from any adversary. Here we introduce a quantum lock to protect the HLPUFs from any general adversaries. The indistinguishability property of the non-orthogonal quantum states, together with the quantum lockdown technique prevents the adversary from accessing the outcome of the CPUFs. Moreover, we show that by exploiting non-classical properties of quantum states, the HLPUF allows the server to reuse the challenge-response pairs for further client authentication. This result provides an efficient solution for running PUF-based client authentication for an extended period while maintaining a small-sized challenge-response pairs database on the server side. Later, we support our theoretical contributions by instantiating the HLPUFs design using accessible real-world CPUFs. We use the optimal classical machine-learning attacks to forge both the CPUFs and HLPUFs, and we certify the security gap in our numerical simulation for construction which is ready for implementation.

**Authors:** Kaushik Chakraborty,Mina Doosti,Yao Ma,Chirag Wadhwa,Myrto Arapinis,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2021-10-18

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2110.09469v3

# Mitigating errors by quantum verification and post-selection

## Abstract

Correcting errors due to noise in quantum circuits run on current and near-term quantum hardware is essential for any convincing demonstration of quantum advantage. Indeed, in many cases it has been shown that noise renders quantum circuits efficiently classically simulable, thereby destroying any quantum advantage potentially offered by an ideal (noiseless) implementation of these circuits. Although the technique of quantum error correction (QEC) allows to correct these errors very accurately, QEC usually requires a large overhead of physical qubits which is not reachable with currently available quantum hardware. This has been the motivation behind the field of quantum error mitigation, which aims at developing techniques to correct an important part of the errors in quantum circuits, while also being compatible with current and near-term quantum hardware. In this work, we present a technique for quantum error mitigation which is based on a technique from quantum verification, the so-called accreditation protocol, together with post-selection. Our technique allows for correcting the expectation value of an observable $O$, which is the output of multiple runs of noisy quantum circuits, where the noise in these circuits is at the level of preparations, gates, and measurements. We discuss the sample complexity of our procedure and provide rigorous guarantees of errors being mitigated under some realistic assumptions on the noise. Our technique also allows for time dependant behaviours, as we allow for the output states to be different between different runs of the accreditation protocol. We validate our findings by running our technique on currently available quantum hardware.

**Authors:** Rawad Mezher,James Mills,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2021-09-29

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2109.14329v3

# Verifying BQP Computations on Noisy Devices with Minimal Overhead

## Abstract

With the development of delegated quantum computation, clients will want to ensure confidentiality of their data and algorithms, and the integrity of their computations. While protocols for blind and verifiable quantum computation exist, they suffer from high overheads and from over-sensitivity: When running on noisy devices, imperfections trigger the same detection mechanisms as malicious attacks, resulting in perpetually aborted computations. We introduce the first blind and verifiable protocol for delegating BQP computations to a powerful server with repetition as the only overhead. It is composable and statistically secure with exponentially-low bounds and can tolerate a constant amount of global noise.

**Authors:** Dominik Leichtle,Luka Music,Elham Kashefi,Harold Ollivier

**Date:** 2021-09-09

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2109.04042v1

# QEnclave – A practical solution for secure quantum cloud computing

## Abstract

We introduce a secure hardware device named a QEnclave that can secure the remote execution of quantum operations while only using classical controls. This device extends to quantum computing the classical concept of a secure enclave which isolates a computation from its environment to provide privacy and tamper-resistance. Remarkably, our QEnclave only performs single-qubit rotations, but can nevertheless be used to secure an arbitrary quantum computation even if the qubit source is controlled by an adversary. More precisely, attaching a QEnclave to a quantum computer, a remote client controlling the QEnclave can securely delegate its computation to the server solely using classical communication. We investigate the security of our QEnclave by modeling it as an ideal functionality named Remote State Rotation. We show that this resource, similar to previously introduced functionality of remote state preparation, allows blind delegated quantum computing with perfect security. Our proof relies on standard tools from delegated quantum computing. Working in the Abstract Cryptography framework, we show a construction of remote state preparation from remote state rotation preserving the security. An immediate consequence is the weakening of the requirements for blind delegated computation. While previous delegated protocols were relying on a client that can either generate or measure quantum states, we show that this same functionality can be achieved with a client that only transforms quantum states without generating or measuring them.

**Authors:** Yao Ma,Elham Kashefi,Myrto Arapinis,Kaushik Chakraborty,Marc Kaplan

**Date:** 2021-09-07

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2109.02952v3

# Non-Destructive Zero-Knowledge Proofs on Quantum States, and Multi-Party

Generation of Authorized Hidden GHZ States

## Abstract

Due to the special no-cloning principle, quantum states appear to be very useful in cryptography. But this very same property also has drawbacks: when receiving a quantum state, it is nearly impossible for the receiver to efficiently check non-trivial properties on that state without destroying it. In this work, we initiate the study of Non-Destructive Zero-Knowledge Proofs on Quantum States. Our method binds a quantum state to a classical encryption of that quantum state. That way, the receiver can obtain guarantees on the quantum state by asking to the sender to prove properties directly on the classical encryption. This method is therefore non-destructive, and it is possible to verify a very large class of properties. For instance, we can force the sender to send different categories of states depending on whether they know a classical password or not. Moreover, we can also provide guarantees to the sender: for example, we can ensure that the receiver will never learn whether the sender knows the password or not. We also extend this method to the multi-party setting. We show how it can prove useful to distribute a GHZ state between different parties, in such a way that only parties knowing a secret can be part of this GHZ. Moreover, the identity of the parties that are part of the GHZ remains hidden to any malicious party. A direct application would be to allow a server to create a secret sharing of a qubit between unknown parties, authorized for example by a third party Certification Authority. Finally, we provide simpler “blind” versions of the protocols that could prove useful in Anonymous Transmission or Quantum Onion Routing, and we explicit a cryptographic function required in our protocols based on the Learning With Errors hardness problem.

**Authors:** Léo Colisson,Frédéric Grosshans,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2021-04-10

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2104.04742v2

# A Unified Framework For Quantum Unforgeability

## Abstract

In this paper, we continue the line of work initiated by Boneh and Zhandry at CRYPTO 2013 and EUROCRYPT 2013 in which they formally define the notion of unforgeability against quantum adversaries specifically, for classical message authentication codes and classical digital signatures schemes. We develop a general and parameterised quantum game-based security model unifying unforgeability for both classical and quantum constructions allowing us for the first time to present a complete quantum cryptanalysis framework for unforgeability. In particular, we prove how our definitions subsume previous ones while considering more fine-grained adversarial models, capturing the full spectrum of superposition attacks. The subtlety here resides in the characterisation of a forgery. We show that the strongest level of unforgeability, namely existential unforgeability, can only be achieved if only orthogonal to previously queried messages are considered to be forgeries. In particular, we present a non-trivial attack if any overlap between the forged message and previously queried ones is allowed. We further show that deterministic constructions can only achieve the weaker notion of unforgeability, that is selective unforgeability, against such restricted adversaries, but that selective unforgeability breaks if general quantum adversaries (capable of general superposition attacks) are considered. On the other hand, we show that PRF is sufficient for constructing a selective unforgeable classical primitive against full quantum adversaries. Moreover, we show similar positive results relying on Pseudorandom Unitaries (PRU) for quantum primitives. These results demonstrate the generality of our framework that could be applicable to other primitives beyond the cases analysed in this paper.

**Authors:** Mina Doosti,Mahshid Delavar,Elham Kashefi,Myrto Arapinis

**Date:** 2021-03-25

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2103.13994v2

# Delegating Multi-Party Quantum Computations vs. Dishonest Majority in

Two Quantum Rounds

## Abstract

Multi-Party Quantum Computation (MPQC) has attracted a lot of attention as a potential killer-app for quantum networks through it’s ability to preserve privacy and integrity of the highly valuable computations they would enable. Contributing to the latest challenges in this field, we present a composable protocol achieving blindness and verifiability even in the case of a single honest client. The security of our protocol is reduced, in an information-theoretically secure way, to that of a classical composable Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMPC) used to coordinate the various parties. Our scheme thus provides a statistically secure upgrade of such classical scheme to a quantum one with the same level of security. In addition, (i) the clients can delegate their computation to a powerful fully fault-tolerant server and only need to perform single qubit operations to unlock the full potential of multi-party quantum computation; (ii) the amount of quantum communication with the server is reduced to sending quantum states at the beginning of the computation and receiving the output states at the end, which is optimal and removes the need for interactive quantum communication; and (iii) it has a low constant multiplicative qubit overhead compared to the single-client delegated protocol it is built upon. The main technical ingredient of our paper is the bootstraping of the MPQC construction by Double Blind Quantum Computation, a new composable resource for blind multiparty quantum computation, that demonstrates the surprising fact that the full protocol does not require verifiability of all components to achieve security.

**Authors:** Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi,Luka Music,Harold Ollivier

**Date:** 2021-02-25

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2102.12949v2

# Randomized Benchmarking with Stabilizer Verification and Gate Synthesis

## Abstract

Recently, there has been an emergence of useful applications for noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices notably, though not exclusively, in the fields of quantum machine learning and variational quantum algorithms. In such applications, circuits of various depths and composed of different sets of gates are run on NISQ devices. Therefore, it is crucial to find practical ways to capture the general performance of circuits on these devices. Motivated by this pressing need, we modified the standard Clifford randomized benchmarking (RB) and interleaved RB schemes targeting them to hardware limitations. Firstly we remove the requirement for, and assumptions on, the inverse operator, in Clifford RB by incorporating a tehchnique from quantum verification. This introduces another figure of merit by which to assess the quality of the NISQ hardware, namely the acceptance probability of quantum verification. Many quantum algorithms, that provide an advantage over classical algorithms, demand the use of Clifford as well as non-Clifford gates. Therefore, as our second contribution we develop a technique for characterising a variety of non-Clifford gates, by combining tools from gate synthesis with interleaved RB. Both of our techniques are most relevant when used in conjunction with RB schemes that benchmark generators (or native gates) of the Clifford group, and in low error regimes.

**Authors:** Ellen Derbyshire,Rawad Mezher,Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2021-02-25

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2102.13044v1

# Efficient Construction of Quantum Physical Unclonable Functions with

Unitary t-designs

## Abstract

Quantum physical unclonable functions, or QPUFs, are rapidly emerging as theoretical hardware solutions to provide secure cryptographic functionalities such as key-exchange, message authentication, entity identification among others. Recent works have shown that in order to provide provable security of these solutions against any quantum polynomial time adversary, QPUFs are required to be a unitary sampled uniformly randomly from the Haar measure. This however is known to require an exponential amount of resources. In this work, we propose an efficient construction of these devices using unitary t-designs, called QPUF_t. Along the way, we modify the existing security definitions of QPUFs to include efficient constructions and showcase that QPUF_t still retains the provable security guarantees against a bounded quantum polynomial adversary with t-query access to the device. This also provides the first use case of unitary t-design construction for arbitrary t, as opposed to previous applications of t-designs where usually a few (relatively low) values of t are known to be useful for performing some task. We study the noise-resilience of QPUF_t against specific types of noise, unitary noise, and show that some resilience can be achieved particularly when the error rates affecting individual qubits become smaller as the system size increases. To make the noise-resilience more realistic and meaningful, we conclude that some notion of error mitigation or correction should be introduced.

**Authors:** Niraj Kumar,Rawad Mezher,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2021-01-14

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2101.05692v1

# Cryptographic approach to Quantum Metrology

## Abstract

We consider a cryptographically motivated framework for quantum metrology in the presence of a malicious adversary. We begin by devising an estimation strategy for a (potentially) altered resource (due to a malicious adversary) and quantify the amount of bias and the loss in precision as a function of the introduced uncertainty in the resource. By incorporating an appropriate cryptographic protocol, the uncertainty in the resource can be bounded with respect to the soundness of the cryptographic protocol. Thus the effectiveness of the quantum metrology problem can be directly related to the effectiveness of the cryptography protocol. As an example, we consider a quantum metrology problem in which resources are exchanged through an unsecured quantum channel. We then construct two protocols for this task which offer a trade-off between difficulty of implementation and efficiency.

**Authors:** Nathan Shettell,Elham Kashefi,Damian Markham

**Date:** 2021-01-05

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2101.01762v2

# Variational Quantum Cloning: Improving Practicality for Quantum

Cryptanalysis

## Abstract

Cryptanalysis on standard quantum cryptographic systems generally involves finding optimal adversarial attack strategies on the underlying protocols. The core principle of modelling quantum attacks in many cases reduces to the adversary’s ability to clone unknown quantum states which facilitates the extraction of some meaningful secret information. Explicit optimal attack strategies typically require high computational resources due to large circuit depths or, in many cases, are unknown. In this work, we propose variational quantum cloning (VQC), a quantum machine learning based cryptanalysis algorithm which allows an adversary to obtain optimal (approximate) cloning strategies with short depth quantum circuits, trained using hybrid classical-quantum techniques. The algorithm contains operationally meaningful cost functions with theoretical guarantees, quantum circuit structure learning and gradient descent based optimisation. Our approach enables the end-to-end discovery of hardware efficient quantum circuits to clone specific families of quantum states, which in turn leads to an improvement in cloning fidelites when implemented on quantum hardware: the Rigetti Aspen chip. Finally, we connect these results to quantum cryptographic primitives, in particular quantum coin flipping. We derive attacks on two protocols as examples, based on quantum cloning and facilitated by VQC. As a result, our algorithm can improve near term attacks on these protocols, using approximate quantum cloning as a resource.

**Authors:** Brian Coyle,Mina Doosti,Elham Kashefi,Niraj Kumar

**Date:** 2020-12-21

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2012.11424v1

# Securing Quantum Computations in the NISQ Era

## Abstract

Recent experimental achievements motivate an ever-growing interest from companies starting to feel the limitations of classical computing. Yet, in light of ongoing privacy scandals, the future availability of quantum computing through remotely accessible servers pose peculiar challenges: Clients with quantum-limited capabilities want their data and algorithms to remain hidden, while being able to verify that their computations are performed correctly. Research in blind and verifiable delegation of quantum computing attempts to address this question. However, available techniques suffer not only from high overheads but also from over-sensitivity: When running on noisy devices, imperfections trigger the same detection mechanisms as malicious attacks, resulting in perpetually aborted computations. Hence, while malicious quantum computers are rendered harmless by blind and verifiable protocols, inherent noise severely limits their usability. We address this problem with an efficient, robust, blind, verifiable scheme to delegate deterministic quantum computations with classical inputs and outputs. We show that: 1) a malicious Server can cheat at most with an exponentially small success probability; 2) in case of sufficiently small noise, the protocol succeeds with a probability exponentially close to 1; 3) the overhead is barely a polynomial number of repetitions of the initial computation interleaved with test runs requiring the same physical resources in terms of memory and gates; 4) the amount of tolerable noise, measured by the probability of failing a test run, can be as high as 25% for some computations and will be generally bounded by 12.5% when using a planar graph resource state. The key points are that security can be provided without universal computation graphs and that, in our setting, full fault-tolerance is not needed to amplify the confidence level exponentially close to 1.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Dominik Leichtle,Luka Music,Harold Ollivier

**Date:** 2020-11-19

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.10005v2

# A Continuous Variable Born Machine

## Abstract

Generative Modelling has become a promising use case for near term quantum computers. In particular, due to the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics, quantum computers naturally model and learn probability distributions, perhaps more efficiently than can be achieved classically. The Born machine is an example of such a model, easily implemented on near term quantum computers. However, in its original form, the Born machine only naturally represents discrete distributions. Since probability distributions of a continuous nature are commonplace in the world, it is essential to have a model which can efficiently represent them. Some proposals have been made in the literature to supplement the discrete Born machine with extra features to more easily learn continuous distributions, however, all invariably increase the resources required to some extent. In this work, we present the continuous variable Born machine, built on the alternative architecture of continuous variable quantum computing, which is much more suitable for modelling such distributions in a resource-minimal way. We provide numerical results indicating the models ability to learn both quantum and classical continuous distributions, including in the presence of noise.

**Authors:** Ieva Čepaitė,Brian Coyle,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2020-11-02

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.00904v1

# Secure Two-Party Quantum Computation Over Classical Channels

## Abstract

Secure two-party computation considers the problem of two parties computing a joint function of their private inputs without revealing anything beyond the output. In this work, we consider the setting where the two parties (a classical Alice and a quantum Bob) can communicate only via a classical channel. Our first result shows that it is in general impossible to realize a two-party quantum functionality with black-box simulation in the case of malicious quantum adversaries. In particular, we show that the existence of a secure quantum computing protocol that relies only on classical channels would contradict the quantum no-cloning argument. We circumvent this impossibility following three different approaches. The first is by considering a weaker security notion called one-sided simulation security. This notion protects the input of one party (the quantum Bob) in the standard simulation-based sense and protects the privacy of the other party’s input (the classical Alice). We show how to realize a protocol that satisfies this notion relying on the learning with errors assumption. The second way to circumvent the impossibility result, while at the same time providing standard simulation-based security also against a malicious Bob, is by assuming that the quantum input has an efficient classical representation. Finally, we focus our attention on the class of zero-knowledge functionalities and provide a compiler that takes as input a classical proof of quantum knowledge (PoQK) protocol for a QMA relation R and outputs a zero-knowledge PoQK for R that can be verified by classical parties. The direct implication of our result is that Mahadev’s protocol for classical verification of quantum computations (FOCS'18) can be turned into a zero-knowledge proof of quantum knowledge with classical verifiers. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to instantiate such a primitive.

**Authors:** Michele Ciampi,Alexandru Cojocaru,Elham Kashefi,Atul Mantri

**Date:** 2020-10-15

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2010.07925v2

# Optimal quantum-programmable projective measurements with coherent

states

## Abstract

We consider a device which can be programmed using coherent states of light to approximate a given projective measurement on an input coherent state. We provide and discuss three practical implementations of this programmable projective measurement device with linear optics, involving only balanced beam splitters and single photon threshold detectors. The three schemes optimally approximate any projective measurement onto a program coherent state in a non-destructive fashion. We further extend these to the case where there are no assumptions on the input state. In this setting, we show that our scheme enables an efficient verification of an unbounded untrusted source with only local coherent states, balanced beam splitters, and threshold detectors. Exploiting the link between programmable measurements and generalised swap test, we show as a direct application that our schemes provide an asymptotically quadratic improvement in existing quantum fingerprinting protocol to approximate the Euclidean distance between two unit vectors.

**Authors:** Niraj Kumar,Ulysse Chabaud,Elham Kashefi,Damian Markham,Eleni Diamanti

**Date:** 2020-09-28

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2009.13201v1

# Certified Randomness From Steering Using Sequential Measurements

## Abstract

The generation of certifiable randomness is one of the most promising applications of quantum technologies. Furthermore, the intrinsic non-locality of quantum correlations allow us to certify randomness in a device-independent way, i.e. one need not make assumptions about the devices used. Due to the work of Curchod et. al., a single entangled two-qubit pure state can be used to produce arbitrary amounts of certified randomness. However, the obtaining of this randomness is experimentally challenging as it requires a large number of measurements, both projective and general. Motivated by these difficulties in the device-independent setting, we instead consider the scenario of one-sided device independence where certain devices are trusted, and others not; a scenario motivated by asymmetric experimental set-ups such as ion-photon networks. We show how certain aspects of previous work can be adapted to this scenario and provide theoretical bounds on the amount of randomness which can be certified. Furthermore, we give a protocol for unbounded randomness certification in this scenario, and provide numerical results demonstrating the protocol in the ideal case. Finally, we numerically test the possibility of implementing this scheme on near-term quantum technologies, by considering the performance of the protocol on several physical platforms.

**Authors:** Brian Coyle,Elham Kashefi,Matty Hoban

**Date:** 2020-08-03

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2008.00705v1

# Quantum versus Classical Generative Modelling in Finance

## Abstract

Finding a concrete use case for quantum computers in the near term is still an open question, with machine learning typically touted as one of the first fields which will be impacted by quantum technologies. In this work, we investigate and compare the capabilities of quantum versus classical models for the task of generative modelling in machine learning. We use a real world financial dataset consisting of correlated currency pairs and compare two models in their ability to learn the resulting distribution - a restricted Boltzmann machine, and a quantum circuit Born machine. We provide extensive numerical results indicating that the simulated Born machine always at least matches the performance of the Boltzmann machine in this task, and demonstrates superior performance as the model scales. We perform experiments on both simulated and physical quantum chips using the Rigetti forest platform, and also are able to partially train the largest instance to date of a quantum circuit Born machine on quantum hardware. Finally, by studying the entanglement capacity of the training Born machines, we find that entanglement typically plays a role in the problem instances which demonstrate an advantage over the Boltzmann machine.

**Authors:** Brian Coyle,Maxwell Henderson,Justin Chan Jin Le,Niraj Kumar,Marco Paini,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2020-08-03

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2008.00691v1

# Security Limitations of Classical-Client Delegated Quantum Computing

## Abstract

Secure delegated quantum computing allows a computationally weak client to outsource an arbitrary quantum computation to an untrusted quantum server in a privacy-preserving manner. One of the promising candidates to achieve classical delegation of quantum computation is classical-client remote state preparation ($RSP_{CC}$), where a client remotely prepares a quantum state using a classical channel. However, the privacy loss incurred by employing $RSP_{CC}$ as a sub-module is unclear. In this work, we investigate this question using the Constructive Cryptography framework by Maurer and Renner (ICS'11). We first identify the goal of $RSP_{CC}$ as the construction of ideal RSP resources from classical channels and then reveal the security limitations of using $RSP_{CC}$. First, we uncover a fundamental relationship between constructing ideal RSP resources (from classical channels) and the task of cloning quantum states. Any classically constructed ideal RSP resource must leak to the server the full classical description (possibly in an encoded form) of the generated quantum state, even if we target computational security only. As a consequence, we find that the realization of common RSP resources, without weakening their guarantees drastically, is impossible due to the no-cloning theorem. Second, the above result does not rule out that a specific $RSP_{CC}$ protocol can replace the quantum channel at least in some contexts, such as the Universal Blind Quantum Computing (UBQC) protocol of Broadbent et al. (FOCS ‘09). However, we show that the resulting UBQC protocol cannot maintain its proven composable security as soon as $RSP_{CC}$ is used as a subroutine. Third, we show that replacing the quantum channel of the above UBQC protocol by the $RSP_{CC}$ protocol QFactory of Cojocaru et al. (Asiacrypt ‘19), preserves the weaker, game-based, security of UBQC.

**Authors:** Christian Badertscher,Alexandru Cojocaru,Léo Colisson,Elham Kashefi,Dominik Leichtle,Atul Mantri,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2020-07-03

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2007.01668v1

# Dispelling Myths on Superposition Attacks: Formal Security Model and

Attack Analyses

## Abstract

It is of folkloric belief that the security of classical cryptographic protocols is automatically broken if the Adversary is allowed to perform superposition queries and the honest players forced to perform actions coherently on quantum states. Another widely held intuition is that enforcing measurements on the exchanged messages is enough to protect protocols from these attacks. However, the reality is much more complex. Security models dealing with superposition attacks only consider unconditional security. Conversely, security models considering computational security assume that all supposedly classical messages are measured, which forbids by construction the analysis of superposition attacks. Boneh and Zhandry have started to study the quantum computational security for classical primitives in their seminal work at Crypto'13, but only in the single-party setting. To the best of our knowledge, an equivalent model in the multiparty setting is still missing. In this work, we propose the first computational security model considering superposition attacks for multiparty protocols. We show that our new security model is satisfiable by proving the security of the well-known One-Time-Pad protocol and give an attack on a variant of the equally reputable Yao Protocol for Secure Two-Party Computations. The post-mortem of this attack reveals the precise points of failure, yielding highly counter-intuitive results: Adding extra classical communication, which is harmless for classical security, can make the protocol become subject to superposition attacks. We use this newly imparted knowledge to construct the first concrete protocol for Secure Two-Party Computation that is resistant to superposition attacks. Our results show that there is no straightforward answer to provide for either the vulnerabilities of classical protocols to superposition attacks or the adapted countermeasures.

**Authors:** Luka Music,Céline Chevalier,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2020-07-01

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2007.00677v1

# Client-Server Identification Protocols with Quantum PUF

## Abstract

Recently, major progress has been made towards the realisation of quantum internet to enable a broad range of classically intractable applications. These applications such as delegated quantum computation require running a secure identification protocol between a low-resource and a high-resource party to provide secure communication. In this work, we propose two identification protocols based on the emerging hardware secure solutions, the quantum Physical Unclonable Functions (qPUFs). The first protocol allows a low-resource party to prove its identity to a high-resource party and in the second protocol, it is vice-versa. Unlike existing identification protocols based on Quantum Read-out PUFs which rely on the security against a specific family of attacks, our protocols provide provable exponential security against any Quantum Polynomial-Time adversary with resource-efficient parties. We provide a comprehensive comparison between the two proposed protocols in terms of resources such as quantum memory and computing ability required in both parties as well as the communication overhead between them.

**Authors:** Mina Doosti,Niraj Kumar,Mahshid Delavar,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2020-06-08

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.04522v2

# Efficient verification of Boson Sampling

## Abstract

The demonstration of quantum speedup, also known as quantum computational supremacy, that is the ability of quantum computers to outperform dramatically their classical counterparts, is an important milestone in the field of quantum computing. While quantum speedup experiments are gradually escaping the regime of classical simulation, they still lack efficient verification protocols and rely on partial validation. Here we derive an efficient protocol for verifying with single-mode Gaussian measurements the output states of a large class of continuous-variable quantum circuits demonstrating quantum speedup, including Boson Sampling experiments, thus enabling a convincing demonstration of quantum speedup with photonic computing. Beyond the quantum speedup milestone, our results also enable the efficient and reliable certification of a large class of intractable continuous-variable multimode quantum states.

**Authors:** Ulysse Chabaud,Frédéric Grosshans,Elham Kashefi,Damian Markham

**Date:** 2020-06-05

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.03520v5

# Quantum Physical Unclonable Functions: Possibilities and Impossibilities

## Abstract

A Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is a device with unique behaviour that is hard to clone hence providing a secure fingerprint. A variety of PUF structures and PUF-based applications have been explored theoretically as well as being implemented in practical settings. Recently, the inherent unclonability of quantum states has been exploited to derive the quantum analogue of PUF as well as new proposals for the implementation of PUF. We present the first comprehensive study of quantum Physical Unclonable Functions (qPUFs) with quantum cryptographic tools. We formally define qPUFs, encapsulating all requirements of classical PUFs as well as introducing a new testability feature inherent to the quantum setting only. We use a quantum game-based framework to define different levels of security for qPUFs: quantum exponential unforgeability, quantum existential unforgeability and quantum selective unforgeability. We introduce a new quantum attack technique based on the universal quantum emulator algorithm of Marvin and Lloyd to prove no qPUF can provide quantum existential unforgeability. On the other hand, we prove that a large family of qPUFs (called unitary PUFs) can provide quantum selective unforgeability which is the desired level of security for most PUF-based applications.

**Authors:** Myrto Arapinis,Mahshid Delavar,Mina Doosti,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2019-10-04

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1910.02126v4

# Randomized Benchmarking in the Analogue Setting

## Abstract

Current development in programmable analogue quantum simulators (AQS), whose physical implementation can be realised in the near-term compared to those of large-scale digital quantum computers, highlights the need for robust testing techniques in analogue platforms. Methods to properly certify or benchmark AQS should be efficiently scalable, and also provide a way to deal with errors from state preparation and measurement (SPAM). Up to now, attempts to address this combination of requirements have generally relied on model-specific properties. We put forward a new approach, applying a well-known digital noise characterisation technique called randomized benchmarking (RB) to the analogue setting. RB is a scalable experimental technique that provides a measure of the average error-rate of a gate-set on a quantum hardware, incorporating SPAM errors. We present the original form of digital RB, the necessary alterations to translate it to the analogue setting and introduce the analogue randomized benchmarking protocol (ARB). In ARB we measure the average error-rate per time evolution of a family of Hamiltonians and we illustrate this protocol with two case-studies of analogue models; classically simulating the system by incorporating several physically motivated noise scenarios. We find that for the noise models tested, the data fit with the theoretical predictions and we gain values for the average error rate for differing unitary sets. We compare our protocol with other relevant RB methods, where both advantages (physically motivated unitaries) and disadvantages (difficulty in reversing the time-evolution) are discussed.

**Authors:** Ellen Derbyshire,Jorge Yago Malo,Andrew Daley,Elham Kashefi,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2019-09-03

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1909.01295v2

# Building trust for continuous variable quantum states

## Abstract

In this work we develop new methods for the characterisation of continuous variable quantum states using heterodyne measurement in both the trusted and untrusted settings. First, building on quantum state tomography with heterodyne detection, we introduce a reliable method for continuous variable quantum state certification, which directly yields the elements of the density matrix of the state considered with analytical confidence intervals. This method neither needs mathematical reconstruction of the data nor discrete binning of the sample space, and uses a single Gaussian measurement setting. Second, beyond quantum state tomography and without its identical copies assumption, we promote our reliable tomography method to a general efficient protocol for verifying continuous variable pure quantum states with Gaussian measurements against fully malicious adversaries, i.e., making no assumptions whatsoever on the state generated by the adversary. These results are obtained using a new analytical estimator for the expected value of any operator acting on a continuous variable quantum state with bounded support over the Fock basis, computed with samples from heterodyne detection of the state.

**Authors:** Ulysse Chabaud,Tom Douce,Frédéric Grosshans,Elham Kashefi,Damian Markham

**Date:** 2019-05-29

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12700v5

# Continuous-variable nonlocality and contextuality

## Abstract

Contextuality is a non-classical behaviour that can be exhibited by quantum systems. It is increasingly studied for its relationship to quantum-over-classical advantages in informatic tasks. To date, it has largely been studied in discrete-variable scenarios, where observables take values in discrete and usually finite sets. Practically, on the other hand, continuous-variable scenarios offer some of the most promising candidates for implementing quantum computations and informatic protocols. Here we set out a framework for treating contextuality in continuous-variable scenarios. It is shown that the Fine–Abramsky–Brandenburger theorem extends to this setting, an important consequence of which is that Bell nonlocality can be viewed as a special case of contextuality, as in the discrete case. The contextual fraction, a quantifiable measure of contextuality that bears a precise relationship to Bell inequality violations and quantum advantages, is also defined in this setting. It is shown to be a non-increasing monotone with respect to classical operations that include binning to discretise data. Finally, we consider how the contextual fraction can be formulated as an infinite linear program. Through Lasserre relaxations, we are able to express this infinite linear program as a hierarchy of semi-definite programs that allow to calculate the contextual fraction with increasing accuracy.

**Authors:** Rui Soares Barbosa,Tom Douce,Pierre-Emmanuel Emeriau,Elham Kashefi,Shane Mansfield

**Date:** 2019-05-20

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1905.08267v2

# QFactory: classically-instructed remote secret qubits preparation

## Abstract

The functionality of classically-instructed remotely prepared random secret qubits was introduced in (Cojocaru et al 2018) as a way to enable classical parties to participate in secure quantum computation and communications protocols. The idea is that a classical party (client) instructs a quantum party (server) to generate a qubit to the server’s side that is random, unknown to the server but known to the client. Such task is only possible under computational assumptions. In this contribution we define a simpler (basic) primitive consisting of only BB84 states, and give a protocol that realizes this primitive and that is secure against the strongest possible adversary (an arbitrarily deviating malicious server). The specific functions used, were constructed based on known trapdoor one-way functions, resulting to the security of our basic primitive being reduced to the hardness of the Learning With Errors problem. We then give a number of extensions, building on this basic module: extension to larger set of states (that includes non-Clifford states); proper consideration of the abort case; and verifiablity on the module level. The latter is based on “blind self-testing”, a notion we introduced, proved in a limited setting and conjectured its validity for the most general case.

**Authors:** Alexandru Cojocaru,Léo Colisson,Elham Kashefi,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2019-04-12

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1904.06303v1

# The Born Supremacy: Quantum Advantage and Training of an Ising Born

Machine

## Abstract

The search for an application of near-term quantum devices is widespread.
Quantum Machine Learning is touted as a potential utilisation of such devices,
particularly those which are out of the reach of the simulation capabilities of
classical computers. In this work, we propose a generative Quantum Machine
Learning Model, called the Ising Born Machine (IBM), which we show cannot, in
the worst case, and up to suitable notions of error, be simulated efficiently
by a classical device. We also show this holds for all the circuit families
encountered during training. In particular, we explore quantum circuit learning
using non-universal circuits derived from Ising Model Hamiltonians, which are
implementable on near term quantum devices.
We propose two novel training methods for the IBM by utilising the Stein
Discrepancy and the Sinkhorn Divergence cost functions. We show numerically,
both using a simulator within Rigetti’s Forest platform and on the Aspen-1 16Q
chip, that the cost functions we suggest outperform the more commonly used
Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) for differentiable training. We also propose an
improvement to the MMD by proposing a novel utilisation of quantum kernels
which we demonstrate provides improvements over its classical counterpart. We
discuss the potential of these methods to learn `hard' quantum distributions, a feat which would demonstrate the advantage of quantum over classical computers, and provide the first formal definitions for what we call `

Quantum Learning
Supremacy’. Finally, we propose a novel view on the area of quantum circuit
compilation by using the IBM to `mimic’ target quantum circuits using classical
output data only.

**Authors:** Brian Coyle,Daniel Mills,Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2019-04-03

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1904.02214v4

# Definitions and Analysis of Quantum E-voting Protocols

## Abstract

Recent advances indicate that quantum computers will soon be reality. Motivated by this ever more realistic threat for existing classical cryptographic protocols, researchers have developed several schemes to resist “quantum attacks”. In particular, for electronic voting, several e-voting schemes relying on properties of quantum mechanics have been proposed. However, each of these proposals comes with a different and often not well-articulated corruption model, has different objectives, and is accompanied by security claims which are never formalized and are at best justified only against specific attacks. To address this, we propose the first formal security definitions for quantum e-voting protocols. With these at hand, we systematize and evaluate the security of previously-proposed quantum e-voting protocols; we examine the claims of these works concerning privacy, correctness and verifiability, and if they are correctly attributed to the proposed protocols. In all non-trivial cases, we identify specific quantum attacks that violate these properties. We argue that the cause of these failures lies in the absence of formal security models and references to the existing cryptographic literature.

**Authors:** Myrto Arapinis,Elham Kashefi,Nikolaos Lamprou,Anna Pappa

**Date:** 2018-10-11

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1810.05083v3

# One-Sided Device-Independent Certification of Unbounded Random Numbers

## Abstract

The intrinsic non-locality of correlations in Quantum Mechanics allow us to certify the behaviour of a quantum mechanism in a device independent way. In particular, we present a new protocol that allows an unbounded amount of randomness to be certified as being legitimately the consequence of a measurement on a quantum state. By using a sequence of non-projective measurements on single state, we show a more robust method to certify unbounded randomness than the protocol of Churchod et al., by moving to a one-sided device independent scenario. This protocol also does not assume any specific behaviour of the adversary trying to fool the participants in the protocol, which is an advantage over previous steering based protocols. We present numerical results which confirm the optimal functioning of this protocol in the ideal case. Furthermore, we also study an experimental scenario to determine the feasibility of the protocol in a realistic implementation. The effect of depolarizing noise is examined, by studying a potential state produced by a networked system of ion traps.

**Authors:** Brian Coyle,Matty J. Hoban,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2018-06-27

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1806.10565v2

# Probabilistic Fault-Tolerant Universal Quantum Computation and Sampling

Problems in Continuous Variables

## Abstract

Continuous-Variable (CV) devices are a promising platform for demonstrating large-scale quantum information protocols. In this framework, we define a general quantum computational model based on a CV hardware. It consists of vacuum input states, a finite set of gates - including non-Gaussian elements - and homodyne detection. We show that this model incorporates encodings sufficient for probabilistic fault-tolerant universal quantum computing. Furthermore, we show that this model can be adapted to yield sampling problems that cannot be simulated efficiently with a classical computer, unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. This allows us to provide a simple paradigm for short-term experiments to probe quantum advantage relying on Gaussian states, homodyne detection and some form of non-Gaussian evolution. We finally address the recently introduced model of Instantaneous Quantum Computing in CV, and prove that the hardness statement is robust with respect to some experimentally relevant simplifications in the definition of that model.

**Authors:** Tom Douce,Damian Markham,Elham Kashefi,Peter van Loock,Giulia Ferrini

**Date:** 2018-06-18

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1806.06618v2

# Optimal quantum-programmable projective measurement with linear optics

## Abstract

We present a scheme for a universal device which can be programmed by quantum states to approximate a chosen projective measurement to a given precision. Our scheme can be viewed as an extension of the swap test to the instance where one state is supplied many times. As such, it has many potential applications given the variety of quantum information tasks which make use of the swap test. In particular, we show that our scheme is optimal for state discrimination under the one-sided error requirement, and optimally approximates any projective measurement. Furthermore, we propose a practical implementation of our scheme with passive linear optics, which involves a simple interferometer composed only of balanced beam splitters.

**Authors:** Ulysse Chabaud,Eleni Diamanti,Damian Markham,Elham Kashefi,Antoine Joux

**Date:** 2018-05-07

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.02546v4

# A simple protocol for fault tolerant verification of quantum computation

## Abstract

With experimental quantum computing technologies now in their infancy, the search for efficient means of testing the correctness of these quantum computations is becoming more pressing. An approach to the verification of quantum computation within the framework of interactive proofs has been fruitful for addressing this problem. Specifically, an untrusted agent (prover) alleging to perform quantum computations can have his claims verified by another agent (verifier) who only has access to classical computation and a small quantum device for preparing or measuring single qubits. However, when this quantum device is prone to errors, verification becomes challenging and often existing protocols address this by adding extra assumptions, such as requiring the noise in the device to be uncorrelated with the noise on the prover’s devices. In this paper, we present a simple protocol for verifying quantum computations, in the presence of noisy devices, with no extra assumptions. This protocol is based on post hoc techniques for verification, which allow for the prover to know the desired quantum computation and its input. We also perform a simulation of the protocol, for a one-qubit computation, and find the error thresholds when using the qubit repetition code as well as the Steane code.

**Authors:** Alexandru Gheorghiu,Matty J. Hoban,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2018-04-17

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1804.06105v1

# Methods for Classically Simulating Noisy Networked Quantum Architectures

## Abstract

As research on building scalable quantum computers advances, it is important to be able to certify their correctness. Due to the exponential hardness of classically simulating quantum computation, straight-forward verification through classical simulation fails. However, we can classically simulate small scale quantum computations and hence we are able to test that devices behave as expected in this domain. This constitutes the first step towards obtaining confidence in the anticipated quantum-advantage when we extend to scales which can no longer be simulated. Realistic devices have restrictions due to their architecture and limitations due to physical imperfections and noise. Here we extend the usual ideal simulations by considering those effects. We provide a general methodology for constructing realistic simulations emulating the physical system which will both provide a benchmark for realistic devices, and guide experimental research in the quest for quantum-advantage. We exemplify our methodology by simulating a networked architecture and corresponding noise-model; in particular that of the device developed in the Networked Quantum Information Technologies Hub (NQIT). For our simulations we use, with suitable modification, the classical simulator of of Bravyi and Gosset. The specific problems considered belong to the class of Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial-time (IQP) problems, a class believed to be hard for classical computing devices, and to be a promising candidate for the first demonstration of quantum-advantage. We first consider a subclass of IQP, defined by Bermejo-Vega et al, involving two-dimensional dynamical quantum simulators, before moving to more general instances of IQP, but which are still restricted to the architecture of NQIT.

**Authors:** Iskren Vankov,Daniel Mills,Petros Wallden,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2018-03-12

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1803.04167v3

# Information Theoretically Secure Hypothesis Test for Temporally

Unstructured Quantum Computation (Extended Abstract)

## Abstract

The efficient certification of classically intractable quantum devices has been a central research question for some time. However, to observe a “quantum advantage”, it is believed that one does not need to build a large scale universal quantum computer, a task which has proven extremely challenging. Intermediate quantum models that are easier to implement, but which also exhibit this quantum advantage over classical computers, have been proposed. In this work, we present a certification technique for such a sub-universal quantum server which only performs commuting gates and requires very limited quantum memory. By allowing a verifying client to manipulate single qubits, we exploit properties of measurement based blind quantum computing to give them the tools to test the “quantum superiority” of the server.

**Authors:** Daniel Mills,Anna Pappa,Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2018-03-02

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1803.00706v1

# On the possibility of classical client blind quantum computing

## Abstract

We define the functionality of delegated pseudo-secret random qubit generator (PSRQG), where a classical client can instruct the preparation of a sequence of random qubits at some distant party. Their classical description is (computationally) unknown to any other party (including the distant party preparing them) but known to the client. We emphasize the unique feature that no quantum communication is required to implement PSRQG. This enables classical clients to perform a class of quantum communication protocols with only a public classical channel with a quantum server. A key such example is the delegated universal blind quantum computing. Using our functionality one could achieve a purely classical-client computational secure verifiable delegated universal quantum computing (also referred to as verifiable blind quantum computation). We give a concrete protocol (QFactory) implementing PSRQG, using the Learning-With-Errors problem to construct a trapdoor one-way function with certain desired properties (quantum-safe, two-regular, collision-resistant). We then prove the security in the Quantum-Honest-But-Curious setting and briefly discuss the extension to the malicious case.

**Authors:** Alexandru Cojocaru,Léo Colisson,Elham Kashefi,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2018-02-23

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1802.08759v2

# Quantum Advantage from Sequential-Transformation Contextuality

## Abstract

We introduce a notion of contextuality for transformations in sequential contexts, distinct from the Bell-Kochen-Specker and Spekkens notions of contextuality. Within a transformation-based model for quantum computation we show that strong sequential-transformation contextuality is necessary and sufficient for deterministic computation of non-linear functions if classical components are restricted to mod2-linearity and matching constraints apply to any underlying ontology. For probabilistic computation, sequential-transformation contextuality is necessary and sufficient for advantage in this task and the degree of advantage quantifiably relates to the degree of contextuality.

**Authors:** Shane Mansfield,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2018-01-24

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1801.08150v3

# Fast Quantum Algorithm for Solving Multivariate Quadratic Equations

## Abstract

In August 2015 the cryptographic world was shaken by a sudden and surprising announcement by the US National Security Agency NSA concerning plans to transition to post-quantum algorithms. Since this announcement post-quantum cryptography has become a topic of primary interest for several standardization bodies. The transition from the currently deployed public-key algorithms to post-quantum algorithms has been found to be challenging in many aspects. In particular the problem of evaluating the quantum-bit security of such post-quantum cryptosystems remains vastly open. Of course this question is of primarily concern in the process of standardizing the post-quantum cryptosystems. In this paper we consider the quantum security of the problem of solving a system of {\it $m$ Boolean multivariate quadratic equations in $n$ variables} (\MQb); a central problem in post-quantum cryptography. When $n=m$, under a natural algebraic assumption, we present a Las-Vegas quantum algorithm solving \MQb{} that requires the evaluation of, on average, $O(2^{0.462n})$ quantum gates. To our knowledge this is the fastest algorithm for solving \MQb{}.

**Authors:** Jean-Charles Faug`ere,Kelsey Horan,Delaram Kahrobaei,Marc Kaplan,Elham Kashefi,Ludovic Perret

**Date:** 2017-12-19

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1712.07211v1

# Verification of quantum computation: An overview of existing approaches

## Abstract

Quantum computers promise to efficiently solve not only problems believed to be intractable for classical computers, but also problems for which verifying the solution is also considered intractable. This raises the question of how one can check whether quantum computers are indeed producing correct results. This task, known as quantum verification, has been highlighted as a significant challenge on the road to scalable quantum computing technology. We review the most significant approaches to quantum verification and compare them in terms of structure, complexity and required resources. We also comment on the use of cryptographic techniques which, for many of the presented protocols, has proven extremely useful in performing verification. Finally, we discuss issues related to fault tolerance, experimental implementations and the outlook for future protocols.

**Authors:** Alexandru Gheorghiu,Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2017-09-20

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1709.06984v2

# Classical multiparty computation using quantum resources

## Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate a new way to perform classical multiparty computing amongst parties with limited computational resources. Our method harnesses quantum resources to increase the computational power of the individual parties. We show how a set of clients restricted to linear classical processing are able to jointly compute a non-linear multivariable function that lies beyond their individual capabilities. The clients are only allowed to perform classical XOR gates and single-qubit gates on quantum states. We also examine the type of security that can be achieved in this limited setting. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation using photonic qubits, that allows four clients to compute a specific example of a multiparty function, the pairwise AND.

**Authors:** Marco Clementi,Anna Pappa,Andreas Eckstein,Ian A. Walmsley,Elham Kashefi,Stefanie Barz

**Date:** 2017-08-21

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.06144v1

# Continuous-Variable Sampling from Photon-Added or Photon-Subtracted

Squeezed States

## Abstract

We introduce a new family of quantum circuits in Continuous Variables and we show that, relying on the widely accepted conjecture that the polynomial hierarchy of complexity classes does not collapse, their output probability distribution cannot be efficiently simulated by a classical computer. These circuits are composed of input photon-subtracted (or photon-added) squeezed states, passive linear optics evolution, and eight-port homodyne detection. We address the proof of hardness for the exact probability distribution of these quantum circuits by exploiting mappings onto different architectures of sub-universal quantum computers. We obtain both a worst-case and an average-case hardness result. Hardness of Boson Sampling with eight-port homodyne detection is obtained as the zero squeezing limit of our model. We conclude with a discussion on the relevance and interest of the present model in connection to experimental applications and classical simulations.

**Authors:** Ulysse Chabaud,Tom Douce,Damian Markham,Peter van Loock,Elham Kashefi,Giulia Ferrini

**Date:** 2017-07-28

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1707.09245v2

# Complexity-theoretic limitations on blind delegated quantum computation

## Abstract

Blind delegation protocols allow a client to delegate a computation to a server so that the server learns nothing about the input to the computation apart from its size. For the specific case of quantum computation we know that blind delegation protocols can achieve information-theoretic security. In this paper we prove, provided certain complexity-theoretic conjectures are true, that the power of information-theoretically secure blind delegation protocols for quantum computation (ITS-BQC protocols) is in a number of ways constrained. In the first part of our paper we provide some indication that ITS-BQC protocols for delegating $\sf BQP$ computations in which the client and the server interact only classically are unlikely to exist. We first show that having such a protocol with $O(n^d)$ bits of classical communication implies that $\mathsf{BQP} \subset \mathsf{MA/O(n^d)}$. We conjecture that this containment is unlikely by providing an oracle relative to which $\mathsf{BQP} \not\subset \mathsf{MA/O(n^d)}$. We then show that if an ITS-BQC protocol exists with polynomial classical communication and which allows the client to delegate quantum sampling problems, then there exist non-uniform circuits of size $2^{n - \mathsf{\Omega}(n/log(n))}$, making polynomially-sized queries to an $\sf NP^{NP}$ oracle, for computing the permanent of an $n \times n$ matrix. The second part of our paper concerns ITS-BQC protocols in which the client and the server engage in one round of quantum communication and then exchange polynomially many classical messages. First, we provide a complexity-theoretic upper bound on the types of functions that could be delegated in such a protocol, namely $\mathsf{QCMA/qpoly \cap coQCMA/qpoly}$. Then, we show that having such a protocol for delegating $\mathsf{NP}$-hard functions implies $\mathsf{coNP^{NP^{NP}}} \subseteq \mathsf{NP^{NP^{PromiseQMA}}}$.

**Authors:** Scott Aaronson,Alexandru Cojocaru,Alexandru Gheorghiu,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2017-04-27

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.08482v2

# Information Theoretically Secure Hypothesis Test for Temporally

Unstructured Quantum Computation

## Abstract

We propose a new composable and information-theoretically secure protocol to verify that a server has the power to sample from a sub-universal quantum machine implementing only commuting gates. By allowing the client to manipulate single qubits, we exploit properties of Measurement based Blind Quantum Computing to prove security against a malicious Server and therefore certify quantum supremacy without the need for a universal quantum computer.

**Authors:** Daniel Mills,Anna Pappa,Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2017-04-06

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.01998v1

# The Quantum Cut-and-Choose Technique and Quantum Two-Party Computation

## Abstract

The application and analysis of the Cut-and-Choose technique in protocols secure against quantum adversaries is not a straightforward transposition of the classical case, among other reasons due to the difficulty to use rewinding in the quantum realm. We introduce a Quantum Computation Cut-and-Choose (QC-CC) technique which is a generalisation of the classical Cut-and-Choose in order to build quantum protocols secure against quantum covert adversaries. Such adversaries can deviate arbitrarily provided that their deviation is not detected. As an application of the QC-CC we give a protocol for securely performing two-party quantum computation with classical input/output. As basis we use secure delegated quantum computing (Broadbent et al 2009), and in particular the garbled quantum computation of (Kashefi et al 2016) that is secure against only a weak specious adversaries, defined in (Dupuis et al 2010). A unique property of these protocols is the separation between classical and quantum communications and the asymmetry between client and server, which enables us to sidestep the quantum rewinding issues. This opens the prospect of using the QC-CC to other quantum protocols with this separation. In our proof of security we adapt and use (at different parts) two quantum rewinding techniques, namely Watrous' oblivious q-rewinding (Watrous 2009) and Unruh’s special q-rewinding (Unruh 2012). Our protocol achieves the same functionality as in previous works (e.g. Dupuis et al 2012), however using the QC-CC technique on the protocol from (Kashefi et al 2016) leads to the following key improvements: (i) only one-way offline quantum communication is necessary , (ii) only one party (server) needs to have involved quantum technological abilities, (iii) only minimal extra cryptographic primitives are required, namely one oblivious transfer for each input bit and quantum-safe commitments.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Luka Music,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2017-03-10

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.03754v1

# Multiparty Delegated Quantum Computing

## Abstract

Quantum computing has seen tremendous progress in the past years. However, due to limitations in scalability of quantum technologies, it seems that we are far from constructing universal quantum computers for everyday users. A more feasible solution is the delegation of computation to powerful quantum servers on the network. This solution was proposed in previous studies of Blind Quantum Computation, with guarantees for both the secrecy of the input and of the computation being performed. In this work, we further develop this idea of computing over encrypted data, to propose a multiparty delegated quantum computing protocol in the measurement-based quantum computing framework.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Anna Pappa

**Date:** 2016-06-29

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.09200v2

# Garbled Quantum Computation

## Abstract

The universal blind quantum computation protocol (UBQC) (Broadbent, Fitzsimons, Kashefi 2009) enables an almost classical client to delegate a quantum computation to an untrusted quantum server (in form of a garbled quantum computation) while the security for the client is unconditional. In this contribution we explore the possibility of extending the verifiable UBQC (Fitzsimons, Kashefi 2012), to achieve further functionalities as was done for classical garbled computation. First, exploring the asymmetric nature of UBQC (client preparing only single qubits, while the server runs the entire quantum computation), we present a “Yao” type protocol for secure two party quantum computation. Similar to the classical setting (Yao 1986) our quantum Yao protocol is secure against a specious (quantum honest-but-curious) garbler, but in our case, against a (fully) malicious evaluator. Unlike the protocol in (Dupuis, Nielsen, Salvail 2010), we do not require any online-quantum communication between the garbler and the evaluator and thus no extra cryptographic primitive. This feature will allow us to construct a simple universal one-time compiler for any quantum computation using one-time memory, in a similar way with the classical work of (Goldwasser, Kalai, Rothblum 2008) while more efficiently than the previous work of (Broadbent, Gutoski, Stebila 2013).

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2016-06-22

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.06931v2

# Blind quantum computing with two almost identical states

## Abstract

The question of whether a fully classical client can delegate a quantum computation to an untrusted quantum server while fully maintaining privacy (blindness) is one of the big open questions in quantum cryptography. Both yes and no answers have important practical and theoretical consequences, and the question seems genuinely hard. The state-of-the-art approaches to securely delegating quantum computation, without exception, rely on granting the client modest quantum powers, or on additional, non-communicating, quantum servers. In this work, we consider the single server setting, and push the boundaries of the minimal devices of the client, which still allow for blind quantum computation. Our approach is based on the observation that, in many blind quantum computing protocols, the “quantum” part of the protocol, from the clients perspective, boils down to the establishing classical-quantum correlations (independent from the computation) between the client and the server, following which the steering of the computation itself requires only classical communication. Here, we abstract this initial preparation phase, specifically for the Universal Blind Quantum Computation protocol of Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi. We identify sufficient criteria on the powers of the client, which still allow for secure blind quantum computation. We work in a universally composable framework, and provide a series of protocols, where each step reduces the number of differing states the client needs to be able to prepare. As the limit of such reductions, we show that the capacity to prepare just two pure states, which have an arbitrarily high overlap (thus are arbitrarily close to identical), suffices for efficient and secure blind quantum computation.

**Authors:** Vedran Dunjko,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2016-04-06

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.01586v1

# Rigidity of quantum steering and one-sided device-independent verifiable

quantum computation

## Abstract

The relationship between correlations and entanglement has played a major role in understanding quantum theory since the work of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (1935). Tsirelson (1980) proved that Bell states, shared among two parties, when measured suitably, achieve the maximum non-local correlations allowed by quantum mechanics. Conversely, Reichardt, Unger and Vazirani (2013) showed that observing the maximal correlation value over a sequence of repeated measurements, implies that the underlying quantum state is close to a tensor product of maximally entangled states and, moreover, that it is measured according to an ideal strategy. However, this strong rigidity result comes at a high price, requiring a large number of entangled pairs to be tested. In this paper, we present a significant improvement in terms of the overhead by instead considering quantum steering where the device of the one side is trusted. We first demonstrate a robust one-sided device-independent version of self-testing, which characterises the shared state and measurement operators of two parties up to a certain bound. We show that this bound is optimal up to constant factors and we generalise the results for the most general attacks. This leads us to a rigidity theorem for maximal steering correlations. As a key application we give a one-sided device-independent protocol for verifiable delegated quantum computation, and compare it to other existing protocols, to highlight the cost of trust assumptions. Finally, we show that under reasonable assumptions, the states shared in order to run a certain type of verification protocol must be unitarily equivalent to perfect Bell states.

**Authors:** Alexandru Gheorghiu,Petros Wallden,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2015-12-23

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.07401v4

# Optimised resource construction for verifiable quantum computation

## Abstract

Recent developments make the possibility of achieving scalable quantum networks and quantum devices closer. From the computational point of view these emerging technologies become relevant when they are no longer classically simulatable. Hence a pressing challenge is the construction of practical methods to verify the correctness of the outcome produced by universal or non-universal quantum devices. A promising approach that has been extensively explored is the scheme of verification via encryption through blind quantum computing initiated by Fitzsimons and Kashefi. We present here a new construction that simplifies the required resources for any such verifiable blind quantum computating protocol. We obtain an overhead that is linear in the size of the input, while the security parameter remains independent of the size of the computation and can be made exponentially small. Furthermore our construction is generic and could be applied to any non-universal scheme with a given underlying graph.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2015-10-26

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.07408v1

# On optimising quantum communication in verifiable quantum computing

## Abstract

In the absence of any efficient classical schemes for verifying a universal quantum computer, the importance of limiting the required quantum resources for this task has been highlighted recently. Currently, most of efficient quantum verification protocols are based on cryptographic techniques where an almost classical verifier executes her desired encrypted quantum computation remotely on an untrusted quantum prover. In this work we present a new protocol for quantum verification by incorporating existing techniques in a non-standard composition to reduce the required quantum communications between the verifier and the prover.

**Authors:** Theodoros Kapourniotis,Vedran Dunjko,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2015-06-23

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06943v1

# Robustness and device independence of verifiable blind quantum computing

## Abstract

Recent advances in theoretical and experimental quantum computing bring us closer to scalable quantum computing devices. This makes the need for protocols that verify the correct functionality of quantum operations timely and has led to the field of quantum verification. In this paper we address key challenges to make quantum verification protocols applicable to experimental implementations. We prove the robustness of the single server verifiable universal blind quantum computing protocol of Fitzsimons and Kashefi (2012) in the most general scenario. This includes the case where the purification of the deviated input state is in the hands of an adversarial server. The proved robustness property allows the composition of this protocol with a device-independent state tomography protocol that we give, which is based on the rigidity of CHSH games as proposed by Reichardt, Unger and Vazirani (2013). The resulting composite protocol has lower round complexity for the verification of entangled quantum servers with a classical verifier and, as we show, can be made fault tolerant.

**Authors:** Alexandru Gheorghiu,Elham Kashefi,Petros Wallden

**Date:** 2015-02-09

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.02571v2

# Enhanced delegated computing using coherence

## Abstract

A long-standing question is whether it is possible to delegate computational tasks securely. Recently, both a classical and a quantum solution to this problem were found. Here, we study the interplay of classical and quantum approaches and show how coherence can be used as a tool for secure delegated classical computation. We show that a client with limited computational capacity - restricted to an XOR gate - can perform universal classical computation by manipulating information carriers that may occupy superpositions of two states. Using single photonic qubits or coherent light, we experimentally implement secure delegated classical computations between an independent client and a server. The server has access to the light sources and measurement devices, whereas the client may use only a restricted set of passive optical devices to manipulate the light beams. Thus, our work highlights how minimal quantum and classical resources can be combined and exploited for classical computing.

**Authors:** Stefanie Barz,Vedran Dunjko,Florian Schlederer,Merritt Moore,Elham Kashefi,Ian A. Walmsley

**Date:** 2015-01-27

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.06730v1

# Quantum-enhanced Secure Delegated Classical Computing

## Abstract

We present a quantumly-enhanced protocol to achieve unconditionally secure delegated classical computation where the client and the server have both limited classical and quantum computing capacity. We prove the same task cannot be achieved using only classical protocols. This extends the work of Anders and Browne on the computational power of correlations to a security setting. Concretely, we present how a client with access to a non-universal classical gate such as a parity gate could achieve unconditionally secure delegated universal classical computation by exploiting minimal quantum gadgets. In particular, unlike the universal blind quantum computing protocols, the restriction of the task to classical computing removes the need for a full universal quantum machine on the side of the server and makes these new protocols readily implementable with the currently available quantum technology in the lab.

**Authors:** Vedran Dunjko,Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2014-05-18

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.4558v1

# Verified Delegated Quantum Computing with One Pure Qubit

## Abstract

While building a universal quantum computer remains challenging, devices of restricted power such as the so-called one pure qubit model have attracted considerable attention. An important step in the construction of these limited quantum computational devices is the understanding of whether the verification of the computation within these models could be also performed in the restricted scheme. Encoding via blindness (a cryptographic protocol for delegated computing) has proven successful for the verification of universal quantum computation with a restricted verifier. In this paper, we present the adaptation of this approach to the one pure qubit model, and present the first feasible scheme for the verification of delegated one pure qubit model of quantum computing.

**Authors:** Theodoros Kapourniotis,Elham Kashefi,Animesh Datta

**Date:** 2014-03-06

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.1438v2

# Entanglement, Flow and Classical Simulatability in Measurement Based

Quantum Computation

## Abstract

The question of which and how a particular class of entangled resource states (known as graph states) can be used for measurement based quantum computation (MBQC) recently gave rise to the notion of Flow and its generalisation gFlow. That is a causal structure for measurements guaranteeing deterministic computation. Furthermore, gFlow has proven itself to be a powerful tool in studying the difference between the measurement-based and circuit models for quantum computing, as well as analysing cryptographic protocols. On the other hand, entanglement is known to play a crucial role in MBQC. In this paper we first show how gFlow can be used to directly give a bound on the classical simulation of an MBQC. Our method offers an interpretation of the gFlow as showing how information flows through a computation, giving rise to an information light cone. We then establish a link between entanglement and the existence of gFlow for a graph state. We show that the gFlow can be used to bound the entanglement width and what we call the \emph{structural entanglement} of a graph state. In turn this gives another method relating the gFlow to bounds on how efficiently a computation can be simulated classically. These two methods of getting bounds on the difficulty of classical simulation are different and complementary and several known results follow. In particular known relations between the MBQC and the circuit model allow these results to be translated across models.

**Authors:** Damian Markham,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2013-11-14

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.3610v1

# Experimental verification of quantum computations

## Abstract

Quantum computers are expected to offer substantial speedups over their classical counterparts and to solve problems that are intractable for classical computers. Beyond such practical significance, the concept of quantum computation opens up new fundamental questions, among them the issue whether or not quantum computations can be certified by entities that are inherently unable to compute the results themselves. Here we present the first experimental verification of quantum computations. We show, in theory and in experiment, how a verifier with minimal quantum resources can test a significantly more powerful quantum computer. The new verification protocol introduced in this work utilizes the framework of blind quantum computing and is independent of the experimental quantum-computation platform used. In our scheme, the verifier is only required to generate single qubits and transmit them to the quantum computer. We experimentally demonstrate this protocol using four photonic qubits and show how the verifier can test the computer’s ability to perform measurement-based quantum computations.

**Authors:** Stefanie Barz,Joseph F. Fitzsimons,Elham Kashefi,Philip Walther

**Date:** 2013-08-30

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0005v1

# Global Quantum Circuit Optimization

## Abstract

One of the main goals in quantum circuit optimisation is to reduce the number of ancillary qubits and the depth of computation, to obtain robust computation. However, most of known techniques, based on local rewriting rules, for parallelising quantum circuits will require the addition of ancilla qubits, leading to an undesired space-time tradeoff. Recently several novel approaches based on measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) techniques attempted to resolve this problem. The key element is to explore the global structure of a given circuit, defined via translation into a corresponding MBQC pattern. It is known that the parallel power of MBQC is superior to the quantum circuit model, and hence in these approaches one could apply the MBQC depth optimisation techniques to achieve a lower depth. However, currently, once the obtained parallel pattern is translated back to a quantum circuit, one should either increase the depth or add ancilla qubits. In this paper we characterise those computations where both optimisation could be achieved together. In doing so we present a new connection between two MBQC depth optimisation procedures, known as the maximally delayed generalised flow and signal shifting. This structural link will allow us to apply an MBQC qubit optimisation procedure known as compactification to a large class of pattern including all those obtained from any arbitrary quantum circuit. We also present a more efficient algorithm (compared to the existing one) for finding the maximally delayed generalised flow for graph states with flow.

**Authors:** Raphael Dias da Silva,Einar Pius,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2013-01-02

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.0351v1

# Proceedings 7th International Workshop on Developments of Computational

Methods

## Abstract

This volume contains the proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Developments in Computational Models (DCM 2011) which was held on Sunday July 3, 2011, in Zurich, Switzerland, as a satelite workshop of ICALP 2011. Recently several new models of computation have emerged, for instance for bio-computing and quantum-computing, and in addition traditional models of computation have been adapted to accommodate new demands or capabilities of computer systems. The aim of DCM is to bring together researchers who are currently developing new computational models or new features for traditional computational models, in order to foster their interaction, to provide a forum for presenting new ideas and work in progress, and to enable newcomers to learn about current activities in this area.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Jean Krivine,Femke van Raamsdonk

**Date:** 2012-07-30

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.6821v1

# Unconditionally verifiable blind computation

## Abstract

Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client’s input, output and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. The authors, together with Broadbent, previously proposed a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with new functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct a new verifiable BQC protocol based on a new class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. The new resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest neighbour form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

**Authors:** Joseph F. Fitzsimons,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2012-03-23

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.5217v3

# Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

## Abstract

Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

**Authors:** Stefanie Barz,Elham Kashefi,Anne Broadbent,Joseph F. Fitzsimons,Anton Zeilinger,Philip Walther

**Date:** 2011-10-06

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.1381v1

# Universal Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

## Abstract

The recently proposed Universal Blind Quantum Computation (UBQC) protocol allows a client to perform an arbitrary quantum computation on a remote server such that perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing random separable single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this arguably constitutes the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of random single qubits which can be sent along long distances without loss is quite challenging and can never be achieved perfectly. In analogy to the concept of approximate security developed for other cryptographic protocols, we introduce here the concept of approximate blindness for UBQC, allowing us to characterize the robustness of the protocol to possible imperfections. Following this, we present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol, by which a client with access to realistic quantum devices (such as coherent laser light) can in a delegated fashion prepare quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. We finally prove that access to coherent states is sufficient to efficiently achieve approximate blindness with arbitrary small security parameter.

**Authors:** Vedran Dunjko,Elham Kashefi,Anthony Leverrier

**Date:** 2011-08-29

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.5571v3

# Ground state blind quantum computation on AKLT state

## Abstract

The blind quantum computing protocols (BQC) enable a classical client with limited quantum technology to delegate a computation to the quantum server(s) in such a way that the privacy of the computation is preserved. Here we present a new scheme for BQC that uses the concept of the measurement based quantum computing with the novel resource state of Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) chains leading to more robust computation. AKLT states are physically motivated resource as they are gapped ground states of a physically natural Hamiltonian in condensed matter physics. Our BQC protocol can enjoy the advantages of AKLT resource states, such as the cooling preparation of the resource state, the energy-gap protection of the quantum computation, and the simple and efficient preparation of the resource state in linear optics with biphotons.

**Authors:** Tomoyuki Morimae,Vedran Dunjko,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2010-09-17

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.3486v2

# Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Developments in Computational Models:

Causality, Computation, and Physics

## Abstract

DCM 2010 provides a forum for ideas about new computing means and models, with a particular emphasis in 2010 on computational and causal models related to physics and biology. We believe that bringing together different approaches

- in a community with the strong foundational background characteristic of FLoC
- results in inspirational cross-boundary exchanges, and innovative further research. Day two of this pre-FLoC 2010 workshop is given over to physics and quantum related computation. The content of day one is more typical of previous DCM workshops - covering a full spectrum of topics related to the development of new computational models or new features for traditional computational models. DCM 2010 was designed to foster interactions, and provide a forum for presenting new ideas and work in progress. It is also intended to enable newcomers to learn about current research in this area.

**Authors:** S. Barry Cooper,Prakash Panangaden,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2010-06-10

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.1937v2

# Algebraic characterisation of one-way patterns

## Abstract

We give a complete structural characterisation of the map the positive branch of a one-way pattern implements. We start with the representation of the positive branch in terms of the phase map decomposition, which is then further analysed to obtain the primary structure of the matrix M, representing the phase map decomposition in the computational basis. Using this approach we obtain some preliminary results on the connection between the columns structure of a given unitary and the angles of measurements in a pattern that implements it. We believe this work is a step forward towards a full characterisation of those unitaries with an efficient one-way model implementation.

**Authors:** Vedran Dunjko,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2010-06-08

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.1431v1

# QMIP = MIP*

## Abstract

The way entanglement influences the power of quantum and classical multi-prover interactive proof systems is a long-standing open question. We show that the class of languages recognized by quantum multi-prover interactive proof systems, QMIP, is equal to MIP*, the class of languages recognized by classical multi-prover interactive proof systems where the provers share entanglement. After the recent result by Jain, Ji, Upadhyay and Watrous showing that QIP=IP, our work completes the picture from the verifier’s perspective by showing that also in the setting of multiple provers with shared entanglement, a quantum verifier is no more powerful than a classical one: QMIP=MIP*. Our techniques are based on the adaptation of universal blind quantum computation (a protocol recently introduced by us) to the context of interactive proof systems. We show that in the multi-prover scenario, shared entanglement has a positive effect in removing the need for a quantum verifier. As a consequence, our results show that the entire power of quantum information in multi-prover interactive proof systems is captured by the shared entanglement and not by the quantum communication.

**Authors:** Anne Broadbent,Joseph Fitzsimons,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2010-04-07

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.1130v2

# Closed timelike curves in measurement-based quantum computation

## Abstract

Many results have been recently obtained regarding the power of hypothetical closed time-like curves (CTCs) in quantum computation. Here we show that the one-way model of measurement-based quantum computation encompasses in a natural way the CTC model proposed by Bennett, Schumacher and Svetlichny. We identify a class of CTCs in this model that can be simulated deterministically and point to a fundamental limitation of Deutsch’s CTC model which leads to predictions conflicting with those of the one-way model.

**Authors:** Raphael Dias da Silva,Ernesto F. Galvao,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2010-03-25

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4971v2

# Ancilla-Driven Universal Quantum Computation

## Abstract

We propose a method of manipulating a quantum register remotely with the help of a single ancilla that steers the evolution of the register. The fully controlled ancilla qubit is coupled to the computational register solely via a fixed unitary two-qubit interaction, E, and then measured in suitable bases. We characterize all interactions E that induce a unitary, step-wise deterministic measurement back-action on the register sufficient to implement any arbitrary quantum channel. Our scheme offers significant experimental advantages for implementing computations, preparing states and performing generalized measurements as no direct control of the register is required.

**Authors:** Janet Anders,Daniel K. L. Oi,Elham Kashefi,Dan E. Browne,Erika Andersson

**Date:** 2009-11-19

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0911.3783v1

# Computational depth complexity of measurement-based quantum computation

## Abstract

We prove that one-way quantum computations have the same computational power as quantum circuits with unbounded fan-out. It demonstrates that the one-way model is not only one of the most promising models of physical realisation, but also a very powerful model of quantum computation. It confirms and completes previous results which have pointed out, for some specific problems, a depth separation between the one-way model and the quantum circuit model. Since one-way model has the same computational power as unbounded quantum fan-out circuits, the quantum Fourier transform can be approximated in constant depth in the one-way model, and thus the factorisation can be done by a polytime probabilistic classical algorithm which has access to a constant-depth one-way quantum computer. The extra power of the one-way model, comparing with the quantum circuit model, comes from its classical-quantum hybrid nature. We show that this extra power is reduced to the capability to perform unbounded classical parity gates in constant depth.

**Authors:** Dan E. Browne,Elham Kashefi,Simon Perdrix

**Date:** 2009-09-25

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.4673v1

# Information Flow in Secret Sharing Protocols

## Abstract

The entangled graph states have emerged as an elegant and powerful quantum resource, indeed almost all multiparty protocols can be written in terms of graph states including measurement based quantum computation (MBQC), error correction and secret sharing amongst others. In addition they are at the forefront in terms of implementations. As such they represent an excellent opportunity to move towards integrated protocols involving many of these elements. In this paper we look at expressing and extending graph state secret sharing and MBQC in a common framework and graphical language related to flow. We do so with two main contributions. First we express in entirely graphical terms which set of players can access which information in graph state secret sharing protocols. These succinct graphical descriptions of access allow us to take known results from graph theory to make statements on the generalisation of the previous schemes to present new secret sharing protocols. Second, we give a set of necessary conditions as to when a graph with flow, i.e. capable of performing a class of unitary operations, can be extended to include vertices which can be ignored, pointless measurements, and hence considered as unauthorised players in terms of secret sharing, or error qubits in terms of fault tolerance. This offers a way to extend existing MBQC patterns to secret sharing protocols. Our characterisation of pointless measurements is believed also to be a useful tool for further integrated measurement based schemes, for example in constructing fault tolerant MBQC schemes.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Damian Markham,Mehdi Mhalla,Simon Perdrix

**Date:** 2009-09-24

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.4479v2

# Twisted graph states for ancilla-driven quantum computation

## Abstract

We introduce a new paradigm for quantum computing called Ancilla-Driven Quantum Computation (ADQC) combines aspects of the quantum circuit and the one-way model to overcome challenging issues in building large-scale quantum computers. Instead of directly manipulating each qubit to perform universal quantum logic gates or measurements, ADQC uses a fixed two-qubit interaction to couple the memory register of a quantum computer to an ancilla qubit. By measuring the ancilla, the measurement-induced back-action on the system performs the desired logical operations. By demanding that the ancilla-system qubit interaction should lead to unitary and stepwise deterministic evolution, and that it should be possible to standardise the computation, that is, applying all global operations at the beginning, we are able to place conditions on the interactions that can be used for ADQC. We prove there are only two such classes of interactions characterised in terms of the non-local part of the interaction operator. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement resource called twisted graph states generated from non-commuting operators. The ADQC model is formalised in an algebraic framework similar to the Measurement Calculus. Furthermore, we present the notion of causal flow for twisted graph states, based on the stabiliser formalism, to characterise the determinism. Finally we demonstrate compositional embedding between ADQC and both the one-way and circuit models which will allow us to transfer recently developed theory and toolkits of measurement-based quantum computing directly into ADQC.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Daniel K. L. Oi,Daniel E. Browne,Janet Anders,Erika Andersson

**Date:** 2009-05-20

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0905.3354v2

# Universal blind quantum computation

## Abstract

We present a protocol which allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for her such that the client’s inputs, outputs and computation remain perfectly private, and where she does not require any quantum computational power or memory. The client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. Our protocol is interactive: after the initial preparation of quantum states, the client and server use two-way classical communication which enables the client to drive the computation, giving single-qubit measurement instructions to the server, depending on previous measurement outcomes. Our protocol works for inputs and outputs that are either classical or quantum. We give an authentication protocol that allows the client to detect an interfering server; our scheme can also be made fault-tolerant. We also generalize our result to the setting of a purely classical client who communicates classically with two non-communicating entangled servers, in order to perform a blind quantum computation. By incorporating the authentication protocol, we show that any problem in BQP has an entangled two-prover interactive proof with a purely classical verifier. Our protocol is the first universal scheme which detects a cheating server, as well as the first protocol which does not require any quantum computation whatsoever on the client’s side. The novelty of our approach is in using the unique features of measurement-based quantum computing which allows us to clearly distinguish between the quantum and classical aspects of a quantum computation.

**Authors:** Anne Broadbent,Joseph Fitzsimons,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2008-07-25

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.4154v3

# Quadratic Form Expansions for Unitaries

## Abstract

We introduce techniques to analyze unitary operations in terms of quadratic form expansions, a form similar to a sum over paths in the computational basis when the phase contributed by each path is described by a quadratic form over $\mathbb R$. We show how to relate such a form to an entangled resource akin to that of the one-way measurement model of quantum computing. Using this, we describe various conditions under which it is possible to efficiently implement a unitary operation U, either when provided a quadratic form expansion for U as input, or by finding a quadratic form expansion for U from other input data.

**Authors:** Niel de Beaudrap,Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi,Martin Roetteler

**Date:** 2008-01-16

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.2461v1

# Parallelizing Quantum Circuits

## Abstract

We present a novel automated technique for parallelizing quantum circuits via forward and backward translation to measurement-based quantum computing patterns and analyze the trade off in terms of depth and space complexity. As a result we distinguish a class of polynomial depth circuits that can be parallelized to logarithmic depth while adding only polynomial many auxiliary qubits. In particular, we provide for the first time a full characterization of patterns with flow of arbitrary depth, based on the notion of influencing paths and a simple rewriting system on the angles of the measurement. Our method leads to insightful knowledge for constructing parallel circuits and as applications, we demonstrate several constant and logarithmic depth circuits. Furthermore, we prove a logarithmic separation in terms of quantum depth between the quantum circuit model and the measurement-based model.

**Authors:** Anne Broadbent,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2007-04-13

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0704.1736v1

# The Measurement Calculus

## Abstract

Measurement-based quantum computation has emerged from the physics community as a new approach to quantum computation where the notion of measurement is the main driving force of computation. This is in contrast with the more traditional circuit model which is based on unitary operations. Among measurement-based quantum computation methods, the recently introduced one-way quantum computer stands out as fundamental. We develop a rigorous mathematical model underlying the one-way quantum computer and present a concrete syntax and operational semantics for programs, which we call patterns, and an algebra of these patterns derived from a denotational semantics. More importantly, we present a calculus for reasoning locally and compositionally about these patterns. We present a rewrite theory and prove a general standardization theorem which allows all patterns to be put in a semantically equivalent standard form. Standardization has far-reaching consequences: a new physical architecture based on performing all the entanglement in the beginning, parallelization by exposing the dependency structure of measurements and expressiveness theorems. Furthermore we formalize several other measurement-based models: Teleportation, Phase and Pauli models and present compositional embeddings of them into and from the one-way model. This allows us to transfer all the theory we develop for the one-way model to these models. This shows that the framework we have developed has a general impact on measurement-based computation and is not just particular to the one-way quantum computer.

**Authors:** Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi,Prakash Panangaden

**Date:** 2007-04-10

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/0704.1263v1

# A direct approach to fault-tolerance in measurement-based quantum

computation via teleportation

## Abstract

We discuss a simple variant of the one-way quantum computing model [R. Raussendorf and H.-J. Briegel, PRL 86, 5188, 2001], called the Pauli measurement model, where measurements are restricted to be along the eigenbases of the Pauli X and Y operators, while auxiliary qubits can be prepared both in the $\ket{+_{\pi\over 4}}:={1/\sqrt{2}}(\ket{0}+e^{i{\pi\over 4}}\ket{1})$ state, and the usual $\ket{+}:={1/ \sqrt{2}}(\ket{0}+\ket{1})$ state. We prove the universality of this quantum computation model, and establish a standardization procedure which permits all entanglement and state preparation to be performed at the beginning of computation. This leads us to develop a direct approach to fault-tolerance by simple transformations of the entanglement graph and preparation operations, while error correction is performed naturally via syndrome-extracting teleportations.

**Authors:** Marcus Silva,Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi,Harold Ollivier

**Date:** 2006-11-28

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0611273v2

# Phase map decompositions for unitaries

## Abstract

We propose a universal decomposition of unitary maps over a tensorial power of C^2, introducing the key concept of “phase maps”, and investigate how this decomposition can be used to implement unitary maps directly in the measurement-based model for quantum computing. Specifically, we show how to extract from such a decomposition a matching entangled graph state (with inputs), and a set of measurements angles, when there is one. Next, we check whether the obtained graph state verifies a “flow” condition, which guarantees an execution order such that the dependent measurements and corrections of the pattern yield deterministic results. Using a graph theoretic characterization of flows, we can determine whether a flow can be constructed for a graph state in polynomial time. This approach yields an algorithmic procedure which, when it succeeds, may produce an efficient pattern for a given unitary.

**Authors:** Niel de Beaudrap,Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2006-03-29

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0603266v1

# Statistical Zero Knowledge and quantum one-way functions

## Abstract

One-way functions are a very important notion in the field of classical cryptography. Most examples of such functions, including factoring, discrete log or the RSA function, can be, however, inverted with the help of a quantum computer. In this paper, we study one-way functions that are hard to invert even by a quantum adversary and describe a set of problems which are good such candidates. These problems include Graph Non-Isomorphism, approximate Closest Lattice Vector and Group Non-Membership. More generally, we show that any hard instance of Circuit Quantum Sampling gives rise to a quantum one-way function. By the work of Aharonov and Ta-Shma, this implies that any language in Statistical Zero Knowledge which is hard-on-average for quantum computers, leads to a quantum one-way function. Moreover, extending the result of Impagliazzo and Luby to the quantum setting, we prove that quantum distributionally one-way functions are equivalent to quantum one-way functions. Last, we explore the connections between quantum one-way functions and the complexity class QMA and show that, similarly to the classical case, if any of the above candidate problems is QMA-complete then the existence of quantum one-way functions leads to the separation of QMA and AvgBQP.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Iordanis Kerenidis

**Date:** 2005-11-30

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0511266v2

# Distributed measurement-based quantum computation

## Abstract

We develop a formal model for distributed measurement-based quantum computations, adopting an agent-based view, such that computations are described locally where possible. Because the network quantum state is in general entangled, we need to model it as a global structure, reminiscent of global memory in classical agent systems. Local quantum computations are described as measurement patterns. Since measurement-based quantum computation is inherently distributed, this allows us to extend naturally several concepts of the measurement calculus, a formal model for such computations. Our goal is to define an assembly language, i.e. we assume that computations are well-defined and we do not concern ourselves with verification techniques. The operational semantics for systems of agents is given by a probabilistic transition system, and we define operational equivalence in a way that it corresponds to the notion of bisimilarity. With this in place, we prove that teleportation is bisimilar to a direct quantum channel, and this also within the context of larger networks.

**Authors:** Vincent Danos,Ellie D’Hondt,Elham Kashefi,Prakash Panangaden

**Date:** 2005-06-09

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0506070v1

# Determinism in the one-way model

## Abstract

We introduce a flow condition on open graph states (graph states with inputs and outputs) which guarantees globally deterministic behavior of a class of measurement patterns defined over them. Dependent Pauli corrections are derived for all such patterns, which equalize all computation branches, and only depend on the underlying entanglement graph and its choice of inputs and outputs. The class of patterns having flow is stable under composition and tensorization, and has unitary embeddings as realizations. The restricted class of patterns having both flow and reverse flow, supports an operation of adjunction, and has all and only unitaries as realizations.

**Authors:** Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2005-06-07

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0506062v2

# The Measurement Calculus

## Abstract

We propose a calculus of local equations over one-way computing patterns, which preserves interpretations, and allows the rewriting of any pattern to a standard form where entanglement is done first, then measurements, then local corrections. We infer from this that patterns with no dependencies, or using only Pauli measurements, can only realise unitaries belonging to the Clifford group.

**Authors:** Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi,Prakash Panangaden

**Date:** 2004-12-17

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0412135v1

# Robust and parsimonious realisations of unitaries in the one-way model

## Abstract

We present a new set of generators for unitary maps over \otimes^n(C^2) which differs from the traditional rotation-based generating set in that it uses a single-parameter family of 1-qubit unitaries J(a), together with a single 2-qubit unitary controlled-Z. Each generator is implementable in the one-way model using only two qubits, and this leads to both parsimonious and robust implementations of general unitaries. As an illustration, we give an implementation of the controlled-U family which uses only 14 qubits, and has a 2-colourable underlying entanglement graph (known to yield robust entangled states).

**Authors:** Vincent Danos,Elham Kashefi,Prakash Panangaden

**Date:** 2004-11-10

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0411071v1

# On the Complexity of Quantum Languages

## Abstract

The standard inputs given to a quantum machine are classical binary strings. In this view, any quantum complexity class is a collection of subsets of ${0,1}^{*}$. However, a quantum machine can also accept quantum states as its input. T. Yamakami has introduced a general framework for quantum operators and inputs \cite{Yam02}. In this paper we present several quantum languages within this model and by generalizing the complexity classes QMA and QCMA we analyze the complexity of the introduced languages. We also discuss how to derive a classical language from a given quantum language and as a result we introduce new QCMA and QMA languages.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Carolina Moura Alves

**Date:** 2004-04-12

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0404062v1

# Quantum Domain Theory - Definitions and Applications

## Abstract

Classically domain theory is a rigourous mathematical structure to describe denotational semantics for programming languages and to study the computability of partial functions. Recently, the application of domain theory has also been extended to the quantum setting. In this note we review these results and we present some new thoughts in this field.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2003-06-11

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0306077v1

# Uniqueness of Entanglement Measure and Thermodynamics

## Abstract

We apply the axiomatic approach to thermodynamics presented by Giles to derive a unique measure of entanglement for bi-partite pure states. This implies that local manipulations of entanglement in quantum information theory and adiabatic transformations of states in thermodynamics have the same underlying mathematical structure. We discuss possible extensions of our results to mixed and multi-partite states.

**Authors:** Vlatko Vedral,Elham Kashefi

**Date:** 2001-12-21

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0112137v1

# A note on quantum one-way permutations

## Abstract

We discuss the question of the existence of quantum one-way permutations. First, we prove the equivalence between inverting a permutation and that of constructing a polynomial size network for reflecting about a given quantum state. Next, we consider the question: if a state is difficult to prepare, is the operator reflecting about that state difficult to construct? By revisiting Grover’s algorithm, we present the relationship between this question and the existence of one-way permutations. Moreover, we compare our method to Grover’s algorithm and discuss possible applications of our results.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Harumichi Nishimura,Vlatko Vedral

**Date:** 2001-09-28

**URL:** http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0109157v1

# A Comparison of Quantum Oracles

## Abstract

A standard quantum oracle $S_f$ for a general function $f: Z_N \to Z_N $ is defined to act on two input states and return two outputs, with inputs $\ket{i}$ and $\ket{j}$ ($i,j \in Z_N $) returning outputs $\ket{i}$ and $\ket{j \oplus f(i)}$. However, if $f$ is known to be a one-to-one function, a simpler oracle, $M_f$, which returns $\ket{f(i)}$ given $\ket{i}$, can also be defined. We consider the relative strengths of these oracles. We define a simple promise problem which minimal quantum oracles can solve exponentially faster than classical oracles, via an algorithm which cannot be naively adapted to standard quantum oracles. We show that $S_f$ can be constructed by invoking $M_f$ and $(M_f)^{-1}$ once each, while $\Theta(\sqrt{N})$ invocations of $S_f$ and/or $(S_f)^{-1}$ are required to construct $M_f$.

**Authors:** Elham Kashefi,Adrian Kent,Vlatko Vedral,Konrad Banaszek

**Date:** 2001-09-20